Medicaid is a public insurance program that provides health coverage to low-income families and individuals, including children, parents, pregnant women, seniors, and people with disabilities. The program, which was created by Congress in 1965 as Title XIX of the Social Security Act, is operated by the states and funded jointly by the federal government and the states.

In Oklahoma, the Medicaid program is known as SoonerCare and is operated primarily by the Oklahoma Health Care Authority. In FY 2017, the program had an average monthly enrollment of served more than 1 million individuals over the course of the year. Sixty-two percent of those enrolled in the program were children, and 60 percent of all children in the state were enrolled in SoonerCare at some point in the year. Aged, Blind and Disabled (ABD) enrollees made up the second largest group (16.8 percent).

Total Medicaid spending was $5.3 billion in FY 2017, with the federal government accounting for $3.1 billion of that amount. The federal matching rate (FMAP) for most expenses was 59.9 percent.