Who’s not voting, and why

With Election Day tomorrow, many of us are busily getting prepared to exercise one of our basic civic rights by attending candidate forums, poring over election guides, studying the seven state ballot measures, and reviewing sample ballots.  But many Oklahomans — close to half — will likely not vote on November 8th. Who are these non-voters, why aren’t they voting, and what can we do about it?

Who Doesn’t Vote

Four years ago, just 51.3 percent of voting-age Oklahomans cast a ballot in the Presidential election, one of the lowest turnout rates in the nation. Two years ago, turnout in Oklahoma and nationally fell to its lowest level in decades, with fewer than one in three (32.3 percent) of eligible voters in this state casting a ballot in the contest for Governor and other state and federal races. Nationally, turnout in the 2014 midterm elections was just 41.9 percent of the voting-age population.

voting-us-ok-1980-2014

The demographic profile of the voting population can be distinguished from the non-voting population in many ways. Perhaps foremost among these is age. In the 2012 Presidential election, there was a 31 point gap in turnout between the oldest voting group, those ages 65 and older (69.7 percent turnout) and the youngest, those ages 18-24 (38.0 percent turnout), according to an analysis  by the U.S. Census Bureau. In midterm elections, the electorate skews even older. While the youngest voters have had the lowest turnout rate in every Presidential election since the voting age was lowered to 18, it is only recently that elderly Americans have consistently voted at the highest rates.

The national pattern of young voter non-participation is even more pronounced in Oklahoma. In 2012, just 27.1 percent of citizens ages 18-24 voted, the third lowest rate in the nation. In 2014, turnout was a dismal 11.8 percent for Oklahomans aged 18-24 and 20.9 percent for those ages 25-44, according to Census Bureau survey data.  As the chart shows, turnout rose steadily with age, peaking at over 50 percent among those age 75 and older.

voter-turnout-ok-2014

Along with young people, several other demographic groups are less likely to vote. In the 2014 midterm elections, non-voters nationally were likeliest to be:

  • Hispanics and Asians (27 percent turnout, compared to 46 percent for Whites and 41 percent for Blacks);
  • Unemployed (30 percent turnout, compared to 57 percent of government workers and 39 percent of those employed in private industry);
  • Less educated (less than 25 percent turnout of those without a high school diploma, compared to over 50 percent for those with a college degree);
  • Low income (less than one-third turnout of those with annual income under $30,000, compared to over 50 percent for those with income over $75,000);
  • Transient (25 percent turnout of those with residency under 1 year, compared to 57 percent with residency of 5 years or longer).

These characteristics are closely interconnected and clustered. Those with less education are likelier to be unemployed and earn less; those with less income are likelier to be transient; young adults are likelier to have less income and be more transient (but not be less educated). The most anomalous statistics may be those involving race and ethnicity: Blacks vote at higher rates and Asians vote at lower rates than one might expect based on their socio-economic levels. 

Why Don’t They Vote?

We might imagine that most non-voters stay home on Election Day because they don’t like the candidates on the ballot or are fed up or disgusted with the political process. There may be more of that this year given the nastiness of the Presidential campaign and the high level of unpopularity of the two major party candidates, but historically this isn’t the main reason people fail to turn out.

When registered voters who did not cast a ballot in November 2012 were asked to explain why they hadn’t voted, a majority cited some kind of procedural obstacles, such as too busy or conflicting schedules (18.9 percent), illness or disability (14.0 percent), out of town (8.6 percent), registration problems (5.5 percent), forgot to vote (3.9 percent), transportation problems (3.3 percent), or inconvenient polling place (2.7 percent). Only about one in eight (12.7 percent) said they did not like the candidates or campaign issues, while 15 percent said they were not interested. Among those who are not even registered to vote, a 2008 survey found that almost half (46.0 percent) said they are not interested in the election or not involved in politics. Even among the non-registered, procedural reasons were often involved, with voters failing to meet the registration deadline (14.7 percent), not knowing where or how to register (4.2 percent), or being hampered by a permanent illness or disability (6.1 percent).

What Can Be Done?

The fact that a majority of non-voters don’t vote due to procedural issues rather than out of apathy or antipathy means we have clear options to improve voter turnout. In our 2014 issue brief, “Repairing Oklahoma’s Broken Democracy,” OK Policy discussed over a dozen options for boosting electoral participation. Among the most promising ideas are providing for permanent absentee ballot status, extending early voting, allowing same-day voter registration, publishing and distributing voter information pamphlets, and eliminating voter identification requirements. Oklahoma has made some progress recently in passing laws allowing for online voter registration (which is still being implemented), consolidating election dates, and making it easier for third-party candidates to get on the ballot. Ultimately, however, the greatest challenge will be to find ways to reinvigorate our democracy so as to convince those who are disconnected from the political system that voting is important and that their vote matters.

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR

David Blatt helped found OK Policy in 2008 and became the organization's Executive Director in 2010. David previously served as Director of Public Policy for Community Action Project of Tulsa County and as a budget analyst for the Oklahoma State Senate. He has a Ph.D. in political science from Cornell University and a B.A. from the University of Alberta. David has been selected as Political Scientist of the Year by the Oklahoma Political Science Association, Local Social Justice Champion by the Dan Allen Center for Social Justice, and Public Citizen of the Year by the National Association of Social Workers. He lives in Tulsa with his wife, Patty Hipsher, a special education teacher in Broken Arrow, and their son, Noah.

2 thoughts on “Who’s not voting, and why

  1. When you only have one day to get out and vote (unless you are doing absentee ballot) and are required by law to produce a photo ID that many potential voters do not have then the state is deliberately creating a low voter turnout. Voter ID laws sought after and passed by republicans for voter fraud that is primarily being committed by republicans is probably the most at fault for low turnout. If we are forced to have a photo ID then the state should be required to provide transportation to and from the photo ID producing facility, cover the cost of the photo ID and cover the cost of the required two forms of ID to get the photo ID. The US Constitution states: in Amendment XV, which was ratified by the states in 1870: “Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The state in passing voter ID laws are curtailing the voters rights to vote. Many of Oklahoma’s voters cannot afford the cost to get the photo ID. We need a national voting week to get out the vote. One day is ludicrous for such an important task as electing people to run the state and the nation. The voter ID restriction should be thrown out in accordance with the Constitution. I have a voters registration card, it does not have my photo on it. It is all I should have to show to vote since I have sworn that I am a citizen.

  2. Jerry, Oklahoma does NOT have a photo ID law. Your voter registration card IS all you have to show in Oklahoma. Not all poll workers know this and may ask to see a photo ID. Refuse to do so and ask for the Precinct Judge or Inspector.

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